Physical Chemistry General topics:
Concept of atoms and molecules; Dalton’s atomic theory; Mole concept; Chemical formulae;
Balanced chemical equations; Calculations (based on mole concept) involving common
oxidationreduction, neutralisation, and displacement reactions; Concentration in
terms of mole fraction, molarity, molality and normality.
Gaseous and liquid states:
Absolute scale of temperature, ideal gas equation; Deviation from ideality, van
der Waals equation; Kinetic theory of gases; Average, root mean square and most
probable velocities and their relation with temperature; Law of partial pressures;
Vapour pressure; Diffusion of gases.
Atomic structure and chemical bonding
Bohr model, spectrum of hydrogen atom, quantum numbers; Wave-particle duality, de
Broglie hypothesis; Uncertainty principle; Qualitative quantum mechanical picture
of hydrogen atom, shapes of s, p and d orbitals; Electronic configurations of elements
(up to atomic number 36); Aufbau principle; Pauli’s exclusion principle and Hund’s
rule; Orbital overlap and covalent bond; Hybridisation (involving s, p and d orbitals
only); Orbital energy diagrams for homonuclear diatomic species; Hydrogen bond;
Polarity in molecules, dipole moment (qualitative aspects only); VSEPR model and
shapes of molecules (linear, angular, triangular, square planar, pyramidal, square
pyramidal, trigonal bipyramidal, tetrahedral and octahedral).
First law of thermodynamics; Internal energy, work and heat, pressurevolume work;
Enthalpy, Hess’s law; Heat of reaction, fusion and vapourization; Second law of
thermodynamics; Entropy; Free energy; Criterion of spontaneity.
Law of mass action; Equilibrium constant, Le Chatelier’s principle (effect of concentration,
temperature and pressure); Significance of ΔG and ΔGo in chemical equilibrium; Solubility
product, common ion effect, pH and buffer solutions; Acids and bases (Bronsted and
Lewis concepts); Hydrolysis of salts.
Electrochemical cells and cell reactions; Standard electrode potentials; Nernst
equation and its relation to ΔG; Electrochemical series, emf of galvanic cells;
Faraday’s laws of electrolysis; Electrolytic conductance, specific, equivalent and
molar conductivity, Kohlrausch’s law; Concentration cells.
Rates of chemical reactions; Order of reactions; Rate constant; First order reactions;
Temperature dependence of rate constant (Arrhenius equation).